Monographs AS2-13and AS2-14,
The Dual Nature of the Energy Radiated by Tesla Coils, Parts 1 and 2
Tesla coils have now, for over a century, been objects of great wonder and also mystery. Tesla himself employed their principle in his famous patent for wireless power transmission.
Yet, despite attempts by a few dedicated experimenters (R. Hull, the
Corums) who have proposed new theoretical approaches to the operation of these devices, the coil has remained essentially miscomprehended, precisely because it superimposes two distinct oscillatory electric fields, one associated with
mass-bound charge and the other with mass-free charge. Moreover, the coil outputs neither electromagnetic radiation, nor an ion field.
The basic demonstration of these stunning facts is carried out in these monographs, where aetherometric experimental and theoretical tools are employed to differentiate, on the basis of fundamental physical effects, the ambipolar
mass-free radiation of Tesla waves from the radiative effects of photons - whether ionizing, HFOT or LFOT photons - as well as from the monopolar electric field effects of ion fluxes or electrostatic charges.
These reports establish, from basic scientific facts, the existence of a longitudinal,
mass-free, electric ambipolar form of energy radiation which is emitted from these coils, and provide the fundamental tools for aetherometric analysis of their operation.
This leads the authors to a demonstration of the correct physical meaning of such basic functions as inductance and the characteristic frequency of the coil, laying the foundations for what will become the complete aetherometric analysis of Tesla coils carried out in companion papers AS-15 and AS2-16.
The fundamental magnetic and electric frequency functions of the
mass-free and mass-bound currents are identified. And an exact aetherometric proof that the electric wavespeed of the ambipolar radiation known as Tesla waves is not bound by c and typically exceeds it, is provided.
These two essays - AS2-13 and AS2-14 - are precisely what is needed before
one can understand longitudinal, ambipolar, mass-free radiation as something
distinct from electromagnetism or photon energy.
Correa, P & Correa, A (1998, 2001)
(Re-)examination of the energy radiation output by Tesla coils, Part 1 :
Experimental determination of its dual nature ( www.aetherometry.com/abs-AS2v2A.html#abstractAS2-13 ).
Experimental re-examination of the
basic physical properties of the Tesla coil does not confirm the
commonly held notions that it radiates "electromagnetic field
energy," or that its loosely termed "electrostatic radiation
field" is in any way mediated by ions formed as a consequence of
the ionizing properties of the said electromagnetic radiation.
Formally, we demonstrate how the Tesla coil is neither a source of
ionizing photons (since it fails to discharge a positively charged
electroscope, inside - or outside - of its electric or 'electrostatic'
field), nor a source of HFOT or LFOT photons, including thermal ones
(since it fails to trigger photoelectric cells and its diathermic effect
can be shown to be an indirect one). It is also not a source of
either negative or positive ions, given that it can bipolarize a doped
full wave divider. Yet, its 'electrostatic field' charges most metallic
(ungrounded) surfaces positively. To explore further the nature of
the Tesla waves, we tested the effect of the Tesla coil output both with
a proportional chamber and with a simple plate antenna connected to a
radiation rate-meter: whereas, like ionizing and HFOT photons, Tesla
waves triggered the proportional chamber, unlike either, and unlike any
other, type of "electromagnetic radiation," Tesla waves alone
were capable of triggering the rate-meter via the plate antenna, even at
Taken together, these
results suggest that there is a complex process of conversion of energy
at work in these induction coils. The pulsed input to the primary
coil induces in the space of the closely coupled secondary a conversion
of the local aether energy into electric form. Aether wave energy
is tapped by the capacito-inductive properties of the secondary coil to
yield resonant, synchronized, superimposed, but distinct 'electric' (electrocapacitative)
and 'magnetic' (magnetoinductive) waves. These wave functions
properly constitute the massfree radiative field energy emitted by the
coil, but they also induce or assemble, within the secondary, an
alternate current of massbound charges, or electrons. In turn,
this alternate current of electrons in the secondary couples its own
'magnetic' field to the electrocapacitative waves of the coil, to yield
a proximal field effect which is responsible for drawing valence and
conduction charge from metallic bodies. Beyond the limit of this
proximal massbound field effect, the radiated (distal) field of what is
known as 'Tesla waves' is composed solely of the 'electric' and
'magnetic' massfree waves radiated from the coil, and is only able to
draw charges from the conduction band of metallic bodies. There
are therefore quite distinct field effects of Tesla coils.
Unfortunately, the proximal field energy has been confusedly assimilated
to a "DC or electrostatic field," just as the distal field has
been confusedly assimilated to an "AC electromagnetic
field." But both fields possess "AC
characteristics" and their real difference stems from the fact that
one is both proximal and distal, and composed of primary massfree
charges, while the other is only proximal, and the effect of the
secondary flux of massbound charges. All happens as if the these
coils synthesized two different kinds of electric fields, one proximal
and massbound, and the other massfree and responsible for all distal
effects. It is the massfree electric field that serves as the
conduit for the massbound electric field, since only the former exists
both proximally and distally, and thus all observable distal effects are
due to it - such as the observed acceleration of leakage rates in
electroscopes placed at greater distances from the coil.
Conversely, it is the induced massbound charge field that is responsible
for the observed spontaneous positive charging of the electroscope in
the proximity of the coil, but since the radiated electric energy is not
an ionizing one, nor does it consist of ion emission, the observed
proximal monopolar (positive) charging of metal objects depends solely
on the metallic nature of the targeted bodies, not upon any supposed
"DC characteristic of an electrostatic field" output by the
coil. In a parallel fashion, the primary massfree charge field is
no less electrical than the proximal field - and thus fully undeserving
of the epithet "electromagnetic".
We can only speak of
production of photons or the presence of electromagnetic energy when the
primary superimposition of the two synchronous wave functions of the
mass-free energy field is resolved, at the surface of the metallic
bodies that it is emitted from or strikes, to yield the
"characteristic electromagnetic" or photonic frequency of the
coil in the form of damped waves. Light, and also heat, are therefore
indirect effects of Tesla waves, mere secondary emissions from metallic
bodies exposed to Tesla radiation. The true "electromagnetic AC
component "must therefore be understood as the secondary mechanical
result of resolving the superimposition of Tesla waves. From this
vantage point, the so-called 'electrostatic' and 'electromagnetic'
fields of the Tesla coil cannot be thought of in the traditional manner
where the former is the result of the latter, as mediated by ionization,
and where the latter alone constitutes the primary emission. There
is neither an electrostatic DC field nor an AC electromagnetic field
(let alone an ionizing one), and we demonstrate this fact
experimentally; both electrostatic and photonic fields are secondary
effects resulting from the interaction of metallic matter with resonant
'electric' and 'magnetic' waves, such that the superimposition of these
waves is subsequently resolved either to charge that matter or to induce
it to emit light and heat.
Finally, basic aetherometric
analysis formally demonstrates how the aether wave functions, whether
formed capacitatively or inductively, are not limited at all by the
photon limit wavespeed c, and thus cannot be thought of, in any way, as
subfunctions of an "electromagnetic" wave that propagates
transversely to the direction of its forward motion. Here, the
critical element of the analysis is the electric frequency term which,
in the "vacuum state", can be seen to exceed the blackbody
radiation frequency limit ,
thus indicating that the aether continuum may not be limited, in its
upper end, by the blackbody upper limit. This constatation is what
originally led us to the discovery of the aether electric spectra, to be
presented in companion reports.
Correa, P & Correa, A (1999, 2001)
Aetherometric treatment of the energy radiation output by Tesla coils, Part 2:
Mass-free and mass-bound non-electromagnetic functions and resultant characteristic electromagnetic frequency of the coil (
In the previous paper we experimentally demonstrated how the TC does not
output either AC electromagnetic radiation, or ion-mediated electric
fields. We further showed that the proximal 'electrostatic field
effect' of these coils is not a byproduct of any ionizing
electromagnetic field, but the result of the interaction of metallic
matter with the proximal capacitative and inductive field of the
coil. In the previous report, we identified two distinct
oscillating field effects: one proximal, and associated with the
capacitatively and inductively formed alternate flux of mass-bound
charge in the coil secondary, and the other proximal and distal, and
conveyed, both electrically and magnetically, by the flux of massfree
charge radiating from the secondary and the space surrounding it, when
the coil is not loaded in resonance. The so-called 'electrostatic
field' effects then result from the interaction of target bodies with
the proximal field effect of synchronous mass-bound and mass-free charge
oscillations, just as the more distal field effects, including
conversion into photon energy, result from the radiative deployment of
mass-free charge emitted by the coil. Both field effects have
distinct drawing actions upon metallic conductors, with the proximal
field drawing conduction and valence negative charges, and the mass-free
field drawing only conduction charges.
We proposed at that time
that these 'electric' and 'magnetic' wave functions are electric and not
electromagnetic, and thus not amenable to the notion that TCs are
electromagnetic energy transmitters. Instead, their VLF signature
is the product of the resolution of the primary superimposition of the
capacitoelectric and magnetoinductive wave functions characteristic of
the electrokinetic energy of the mass-bound charges circulating in the
secondary. Hence, in the present communication, we complete our
demonstration of how the characteristic electromagnetic frequency of the
coil, FC, results from the resolution of the
electrocapacitative and magnetoinductive wave frequencies, FA
and FB, of electronic charges.
We further propose that this
process, in turn, is driven by the capture of electric massfree energy
by massbound charges, in the form of their kinetic energy, and that it
is the shedding of this kinetic energy that directly gives rise to
blackbody photon production.
1. On the nature of photons
1.1. Currently, it is held that solar radiation consists of photons. Implied in this is the notion that photons travel through space, like fibers of light, with analogy to ballistic models for the projection of material particles - as if the photons were hurled across space.
It is the view of aetherometric theory that solar radiation does not consist of photons, but of the
mass-free electrical charges that compose the —solar electrical field
[http://aetherometry.com/abs-AS2v2B.html#abstractAS2-17A]. Moreover, it is also the view of aetherometric theory that photons are 'punctual' and local productions, that they do not travel through space but rather occupy a globular space where they are created and extinguished.
1.2. If photons do not travel through space, what is it that travels through space and is the cause of the transmission of the light stimulus, and ultimately of any local production of photons?
[Aetherometry contends that what travels through space and transmits the light impulse is electrical radiation composed of
mass-free charges and their associated longitudinal waves (the true phase waves), not electromagnetic radiation composed of photons and their transverse waves. The wave transmission of all electromagnetic signals depends on the transmission of
non-electromagnetic energy, specifically the transmission of electric mass-free charges (the propagation of —the field—).]
2.2. In accordance with the preceding, Aetherometry claims that solar radiation is electrical, not because it is composed of photons, but because it consists of propagating
mass-free charges. Unlike mass-bound charges, mass-free charges have no fixed spin orientation with respect to forward propagation. They can be thought of as net spin 0 charges.
But at any time, they may have an effective spin that is either -1/2 or +1/2 (actually, -1 and +1, as spin, in
Aetherometry, is a number property of angular momentum, not of the number of
'hyperdimensions' attributed to states of polarization, as it is in Quantum Electrodynamics). They also have transverse, or near-transverse, electrical and magnetic fields, waves and field wave-vectors.
But whereas the waves composing a photon are analogous to the transverse waves that propagate in water and limited to circularized motion, the waves composing a
mass-free charge are analogous to the longitudinal pressure waves responsible for the forward propagation of sound.
mass-free charges cannot be described as occupying or forming a globular space, or even a toroidal one, but as occupying or forming a forward-moving cycloidal
Experimental Aetherometry, Volume 2B
Aetherometry and Gravity: An Introduction
Ambipolar mass-free energy
(Orgone and DOR), aka Tesla radiation
Electric mass-free energy consists of ambipolar charges that are devoid of inertial effects and propagate longitudinally. In contrast to the monopolar charges (electrons, protons) that characterize ordinary
mass-bound electricity, ambipolar charges continuously alternate between polar states, or, to say it more accurately, constantly vary their polarity during forward propagation. Ambipolar electricity is a
mass-free phenomenon. Field capture of ambipolar energy by mass-bound
(monopolar) charges results in their acceleration; deceleration of the same
mass-bound charges results in the local production of blackbody photons. The Correas have published the cosmic spectrum of ambipolar radiation and the corresponding blackbody spectra emitted from electrons and protons, providing exact new equations that profoundly alter the conventional theory of electromagnetism. They have also demonstrated how the continuous ambipolar spectrum contains two biologically and physically distinct regions that correspond to W. Reich's distinction between orgone (OR) energy and DOR
(dorgone or deadly orgone). The cutoff between OR and DOR occurs at 79.4
keV. This is a strictly aetherometric discovery.
Latent heat or latent mass-free energy
Nonelectric mass-free energy exists in both unbound and mass-bound states.
mass-bound states, it is responsible for the energy of state of molecular phases, the intrinsic energy of gases, specific latent heats, most of the atmospheric energy, and the noncovalent bond energies exploited by all living systems.
Its generic designation is molecular latent heat. In unbound states,
mass-free latent energy is responsible for the cosmological creation of space and the direction
(diachronism) and synchronicity of absolute Time. The superimposition of unbound
mass-free latent energy yields what is physically and mathematically designated as the phase energy which permits the creation of mass-energy and associated gravitons (*secondary superimposition*).
Thus, Aetherometry affirms that all mass-energy is a transient construct of the phase superimposition of latent
mass-free energy, the composite effect of Aether energy units.
Blackbody radiation is composed of nonionizing thermal, optical and supra-optical 'electromagnetic' (photon) radiation, forming what is called radiative (sensible) heat.
Ambipolar orgone radiation indirectly gives rise (through the 'medium' of electrons) to blackbody radiation having wavelengths greater than 300 nanometers.
Ambipolar DOR radiation indirectly gives rise to blackbody
(Hallwacks) photons in the UVB and UV-C ranges, up to the shortest 47nm blackbody radiation (end of the blackbody spectrum).
Note that sensible heat, unlike latent heat, is composed of thermal drift kinetons (molecular heat) and blackbody photons
Photons (ionizing or nonionizing), 'kinetons', gravitons, ambipolar charges and particles or units of latent
mass-free energy are all mass-free particles associated with specific physical interactions or manifestations.
The demonstration of these particles' existence, and the proposed new model and mathematical formalism (see Aetherometric Microfunctional Transformative Algebra below) that address their specific properties, have been extracted from a nexus of systematic and diverse experimental investigations into physical and biological systems, gathered under the rubrics of Experimental
Aetherometry, Aetherometric Biology, and The Aetherometric Theory of Synchronicity
In practice Tesla radiation
(ambipolar radiation) is not detectable until it interacts with matter,
ie. a metal electrode.
The aether itself is mass-less and ambipolar.
It explains quantum tunneling, entanglement and any other experiment like
that (longitudinal waves).
In Aetherometry the basic mass unit is the torus shaped electron.