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Tesla's patents specifically state that he planned to transmit power via a two-conductor system, an excited layer of the atmosphere (he wrote that it would be as conductive as a copper wire) with a ground return circuit through the earth. He mentions this often over the years. Question: How can any experiments not involving conduction through an artificially ionized atmospheric region be considered a demonstration of the Tesla system? In other words, how could his experiments be scaled down to something manageable?
The Basic Apparatus
Reduced to the minimum required apparatus, a demonstration Tesla wireless system is comprised of two mutually tuned electrical oscillators, each consisting of a radio frequency power supply connected to a grounded top-loaded helical resonator. The oscillators themselves must be positioned at more than a few wavelength's distance apart for the demonstration to be truly meaningful.
The basic Tesla coil wireless transmitter consists of a vertical helical resonator connected at its top to a spherical or toroid-shaped elevated terminal and at its bottom to a ground rod penetrating deep into the earth. The ground connection is constructed so as to introduce the least possible resistance between it and the subsurface. The resonator is excited by high-energy transient pulses either directly through a loosely coupled primary winding or indirectly through an air core transformer. The basic Tesla wireless receiver is identical to the transmitter, including the helical resonator, the elevated terminal, and the ground terminal. In other words, the Tesla receiving transformer apparatus used to receive the transmitted energy consists of a helical resonator connected at its top to an elevated terminal and at its bottom to a deep ground rod, just like the transmitter. This type of receiver might be called an active receiver in that it includes a local oscillator and regenerative circuitry. The second form of the Tesla wireless receiver is essentially passive. It consists simply of a grounded top-loaded helical resonator with some arrangement for sensing the induced electric or magnetic field associated with the receiving element as a result of the received electrical energy. The sensor is either an E-field or H-field probe connected to an amplifier.
The wireless method developed by Tesla and planned for use at Wardenclyffe involves the conduction of electric current through the earth between the above-described transmitting and receiving apparatus. Any current flowing through the spherically conducting earth has to be balanced by an equivalent electrical displacement of the opposite sign through the space above it. This equivalent electrical displacement can be achieved by means of electrical conduction through the atmosphere without violating any of the known laws of physics. [Henry Bradford]
Under normal conditions gaseous bodies are insulators. For a gas to be electrically conducting it must be brought into an ionized state first. When a gas is ionized it is converted into the fourth state of matter known as plasma. Many mechanisms exist for the creation of plasma. For example, the high-potential pulsed radio-frequency current applied to the Tesla transmitter's helical resonator creates an oscillating magnetic field. This induces an oscillating electric field. The resulting electromagnetic field creates a weak to highly ionized plasma in the vicinity of each resonator and it's associated high-voltage elevated terminal, depending on the amount of pulsed power applied to the Tesla coil oscillation transformer primary. In addition to this inductively coupled discharge created plasma, conditions also exist for the creation of capacitively coupled discharge plasma between the Tesla coil transmitter's elevated terminal and the Tesla receiving transformer's elevated terminal.
For high power energy transmission by true electrical conduction, a very high potential is needed on both elevated terminals to break down the insulating stratum around and above each plant. The ionization of the atmosphere directly above the elevated terminals could be facilitated by the use of an ionizing beam of ultraviolet radiation to form what might be called a high-voltage plasma transmission line. The upper troposphere between the transmitter and the receiver is available for a conductor if a plasma state can be induced within that region. The end result is a flow of true conduction currents between the two terminals by a path up to and through the troposphere, and back down to the other facility. As part of this process a plasma wave is developed in the ionized region between the two elevated terminals. These would be either electrostatic waves or more likely magneto-hydrodynamic waves, assuming the presence of inter-connected magnetic field lines. Propagation of the ion acoustic wave in plasma bears a passing resemblance to Tesla's description of "the universal medium . . . a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air" ["Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views on Power," New York Herald Tribune, September 11, 1932].
In 1935 Tesla spoke about the transmission of propulsive power to ships at sea "through the stratosphere" using this technique.
As mentioned above, a minimal Tesla wireless system is composed of two mutually attuned Tesla coil oscillators. Each can be configured to act as either a transmitter or a receiver. The net flow of energy between the two wireless stations is dictated by the phase relationship between them. When properly tuned, there exists a precise push-pull or opposite phase relationship between the transmitter and receiver. There are two elevated terminals, one at each location. The atmospheric path passes high potential, low current electrical energy through a somewhat resistive high impedance plasma transmission line running the entire distance between the two elevated terminals. At the same time the low resistance ground path passes electrical energy of comparatively low potential and high current, flowing through the body of the earth.
It is well known, the higher the voltage that is passed across a conventional electrical power transmission line, the greater is its efficiency. This is due to the relationship between voltage and current as they pertain to power dissipation. For example, to power a hypothetical 100-watt load, the current can be one ampere at 100 volts, 10 amperes at 10 volts or 100 amperes at 1 volt, or any number of similar combinations. Every conductor, other than a superconductor, has a finite resistance. The voltage drop (E) across a resistance (R) is given by Ohm's law, E = IR. For any given load, with a constant transmission-line resistance, by lowering the current (I) that flows through the transmission line, the voltage drop or loss is reduced. As can be seen by the inverse relationship between voltage and current, increasing the transmission-line voltage reduces the current. Conversely, the greater the current involved in powering a given load, the greater is the transmission-line loss, taken as a function of transmission-line resistance.
The above statements about transmission-line loss are also true in regards to the plasma transmission line that runs between the two elevated terminals. Tesla designed his transmitter with the expressed purpose of developing the greatest possible potential on the elevated terminal in order to minimize the loss due to the plasma transmission-line resistance. Looking at the Tesla wireless energy transmission system, each of the two transmitter-receiver facilities serves, in a sense, as a lever and a fulcrum for conversion of the electrical energy flowing across the two conducting paths of differing impedance. [James Corum, et al]
there is nothing about the Tesla wireless system in the form described
above that defies the known laws of physics.
If the construction of such a system were to be undertaken it would allow
for the electrical interconnection of a Tesla transmitter and a distant
Tesla receiver by a means other then electromagnetic radiation or
The Use of Electrostatic Induction in the Place of Conduction
Tesla's work was directed towards the development of a system that combined wireless telecommunications and electrical power transmission, the communications component being Tesla's initial goal. While electrical power transmission was viewed by him as being of greater importance, an attempt at its large-scale implementation would have taken place only after the feasibility of the basic concept had been established.
It has been empirically demonstrated that electrical displacement through the intervening space between the two elevated terminals can also be achieved at lower power levels at which an artificially produced plasma transmission line does not exist. This means that with a demonstration Tesla wireless system, as configured for telecommunications purposes only, the potential of the two elevated terminals can be kept relatively low, bringing the system's small-scale replication easily within the grasp of experimenters of modest means.
One proposed explanation for the energy flow between the elevated terminals of small-scale systems is by means of electrostatic induction. At the low power levels characteristic of the system when configured for telecommunications only, the electrical connection between the two elevated terminals is predominantly by electrostatic induction or so the called 'displacement current" existing in the atmospheric dielectric. (See "Wireless Transmission Theory" for some alternative proposed mechanisms.) If it can be established that electrostatic induction is responsible for electrical coupling of the elevated terminals, this will raise a problem with the mathematical model upon which current electromagnetic theory is based.
It has been observed that there are differences between the wave equation according to Laplace and the wave equation according to Maxwell which result in an inconsistency. In the Laplace equation Maxwell's damping term is missing while the divergence E factor does appear. From the comparison of coefficients of both wave descriptions, mathematically, Maxwell's damping term can be seen to precisely correspond to Laplace's divergence E factor. The problem itself has to do with the way in which Maxwell's equations alone handle the electric field in a dielectric adjacent to a conductor in which circulating eddy currents are flowing. While the motion of the eddy currents is described as rotating, the E-field associated with the rotating charge carriers is described by Maxwell as not rotating. While Maxwell's equations show an eddy current's associated E-field as non-rotating and short-lived, in physical reality the associated E-field may be composed of a rotating and more or less persistent approximately ring-like structure.
Seen in the physical example of a dipole radio antenna, the induced eddy currents circulating in the two conductors are known to be associated with broad-band RF thermal noise. As long as the wave equation according to Laplace is used while adhering to Maxwell's theory at the same time, this can be easily explained. A contradiction arises because the thermal RF noise (which actually exists in the region adjacent to the conductor) is observed, but Maxwell's description alone demands that the RF noise cannot exist. Maxwell's assertion contradicts physical reality. Measurements show that all antennas produce some thermal noise. Furthermore, Maxwell's equations dictate that as the reason for wave damping only E-field vortices should be considered, but the equations only describe the eddy currents that occur in the electrically conducting parts of the antenna.
In regards to
divergence phenomena in dielectrics:
Understanding the Tesla System
The two fundamental principles behind the operation of the Tesla system are,
1. Low frequency alternating current can be transmitted through the inhomogeneous earth with low resistive loss due to the fact that the net resistance between antipodes of the earth is considerably less than 1 ohm. The electrical displacement takes place predominantly by electrical conduction through the more conductive regions. The electrical energy also propagates through the earth by means of displacement current.
2. Low frequency high voltage alternating current can be transmitted through the atmosphere with low loss. The electrical displacement takes place by a) electrostatic induction b) electrical conduction through artificially induced high altitude plasma, or c) a combination of these two.
In the patent SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY (Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900) Tesla said,
The key words here
are "energy may be collected at that terminal by electrostatic
induction." Practical experience demonstrates that propagation
along entire path between the two elevated terminals, disregarding any
ionized region in the vicinity of the Tesla coil transmitter, can be
supported by electrostatic induction alone. Electrostatic induction
equates to displacement current passing across the region between the two
elevated terminals, which, in a very special sense, constitute the two
plates of a capacitor. The capacitor is special because the spacing between the two plates exceeds the wavelength of the applied alternating current and yet electrical energy
passes across the intervening space as though the separation was closer to that of a conventional capacitor.
In regards to the character of the E-field between the two elevated terminals, it is not
uniform but has wave properties.
Question: Where do Tesla's 'longitudinal waves' fit into this system?
According to Maxwell, the electric field associated with the charge carriers flowing into and within the two elevated terminals should do two things. A portion of the E-field, in conjunction with the associated magnetic field, will phase shift and assume the form of electromagnetic energy known as electromagnetic radiation. The remainder of the induced E-field will be converted to heat.
This is the case with a dipole radio antenna, the two conducting elements of which comprise the two sides of a capacitor with the intervening air forming the dielectric. Assume that the efficiency of this antenna is 80%, with that percentage of the power that is fed into it being transformed into radio waves. In this case the entire remaining 20 percent of the transmitter output power is accounted for as loss in the form of heat. According to Maxwell the antenna's conductor's get hot and the air around it is heated by dielectric losses. If the antenna is a grounded monopole (described electrically as a dipole antenna) then, it is said, the earth is also heated by this same effect. This interpretation is not in complete harmony with Maxwell's equations, which describe the antenna loss as resulting directly from a damping of the transverse wave. The problem once again arises because the damping term of the derived field equation of a damped transverse wave is not stated in terms of thermodynamics.
These theoretical persistent structures have been called the longitudinal electromagnetic energy wave, the potential vortex wave, and the Tesla wave.
In the case of an ideal dipole radio antenna in free space the electric field associated with the charge carriers flowing within the two conductors does two things. A portion of the E-field, in conjunction with an associated magnetic field assumes the form of electromagnetic energy known as electromagnetic radiation. The remainder of the generated E-field existing in conjunction with an H-field component in the form of thermal RF noise, degenerates and is converted into heat.
In the case of a grounded monopole antenna, then the electric field associated with the charge carriers flowing within the two conductors does three things. 1) As with the ideal dipole antenna, a portion of the generated E-field in conjunction with the associated magnetic field changes into electromagnetic radiation. 2) A portion of the generated E-field that exists in the form of thermal RF noise in conjunction with the H-field degenerates locally and is converted into heat. 3) A further portion of the generated E-field energy is buffered in the more or less persistent rotating possibly ring-like vortex structures and propagates outward into the surrounding environment where, after a temporal delay, it interacts with physical matter and is converted to heat, or the wave energy is recovered by a grounded receiver and converted back into electrical energy.
In the case of a Tesla launching and receiving structure pair, the electric field associated with the charge carriers flowing within the transmitter's helical resonator and into the elevated terminal also does three things. 1) As with the ideal dipole antenna and the grounded monopole, a portion (a minor portion in this case) of the generated E-field in conjunction with the associated magnetic field ends up as ordinary electromagnetic radiation. 2) A portion of the generated E-field energy that exists in the form of thermal RF noise degenerates locally and is converted into heat. 3) A significant portion of the E-field energy in the form of the more-or-less persistent rotating vortex structure described above (that which would otherwise be frequency-converted to broadband thermal RF noise) is buffered and propagates directly to the grounded Tesla coil receiving apparatus where it is converted back into an electrical current. In the absence of a Tesla system receiver, the E-field energy moves outward into the surrounding environment where, after a temporal delay, it interacts with physical matter and is converted to heat, etc. In other words, the potential vortices permeate the environment where they interact with physical matter and degenerate into heat and other forms of energy. Under certain frequency- and power-related circumstances the wave energy contributes to the excitation of an electrical terrestrial resonance mode.
The transmitted energy of a radio system with an elevated dipole antenna propagates by means of electromagnetic radiation. Change the dipole antenna to a grounded 1/4-wave monopole antenna and the situation remains exactly the same from the viewpoint of present-day electromagnetic theory, except that antenna efficiency is compromised and losses increase because of the structures close proximity to the earth's surface. The transmitted energy of radio system with a grounded antenna still propagates away from the wave launching structure by means of electromagnetic radiation. This is propagation by means of the well-known transverse electromagnetic wave.
Now consider the
Tesla system. The transmitter's wave launching structure is also
grounded, in a similar fashion to the 1/4-wave monopole although the
underground part is buried much deeper. The above-ground part of the
structure is built in such a way that it is a very inefficient radiator.
It consists of a close-wound helical resonator--not a loading
coil--connected to an electrically short, large-diameter vertical
conductor that is topped off with a massive elevated terminal. This
electrically short segment is a very small fraction of an operational
1/4-wave length, on the order of 1% or less.
The underground part is buried so deeply as "to have a grip on the
earth so that the whole of this globe can quiver. . . ." In contrast to the
conventional 'transverse-wave' wireless transmission system, the
longitudinal wave wireless transmission system is incomplete and
nonfunctional without a grounded longitudinal energy wave wireless receiver.
The receiver is in many respects identical to the transmitter. The
above-ground portion of the structure also consists of a close wound
helical resonator and an electrically short, vertical cylindrical section
of pipe terminated with a massive topload.
Question: What are the supposed properties of longitudinal waves?
Longitudinal electromagnetic waves may exist in the form of ring-like vortices. These structures are described by Meyl as "potential vortices." By the circumstance that the vortex direction of the ring-like vortex is determined and the field pointers further are standing perpendicular to it, as well as perpendicular to each other, there result two theoretical forms of the longitudinal energy wave. In the first case the vector of the H-field points radially with respect to the ring vortex center and that of the E-field points axially forward. The vortex will propagate in this direction in space and appear as a longitudinal wave, so that the propagation of the wave takes place in the direction of the electric field. This can be called the longitudinal electric wave. In the second case the E- and H-field vectors exchange places. The direction of propagation in this form coincides with the oscillating magnetic field pointer and for that reason it may be called the longitudinal magnetic wave. Generally, the propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the direction of its axial field pointer characterizes a longitudinal energy wave.
Because a longitudinal wave propagates in the direction of the field, the field pointer it also will oscillate with the velocity of propagation v. The wave velocity is not constant. It can differ significantly from the speed of light and can assume arbitrary values. According to theory, the corresponding field oscillating with it determines its momentary size:
The velocity of propagation v of the longitudinal energy wave thus oscillates twice as frequently and with the opposite phase to the corresponding field. As the field attains its maximum value, the velocity (v) of the wave decelerates to its smallest value. At the point of the field minimum, the longitudinal wave accelerates to its maximum value. For longitudinal electromagnetic waves, therefore, only an average velocity of propagation is given and measured, as for instance is usual for a sound wave, and this can vary considerably as is well known (velocity of sound through a relatively solid body compared to sound through air, etc.). Longitudinal waves can assume arbitrary velocities between zero and Infinity because they propagate in the direction of an oscillating field pointer and as a consequence of that their velocity of propagation oscillates as well and is by no means constant.
In the two forms of longitudinal wave represented by the dual field vectors of E and H, the one in the direction of propagation and the other one standing perpendicular to it occur jointly. Both oscillate with the same frequency and both form the ring-like vortex propagating in the respective direction. As a result the ring-like vortex also oscillates in its diameter twice as frequently and with opposite phase to the corresponding field. It is to this circumstance that the ring-like vortex owes its property to tunnel. It has been demonstrated that the Faraday cage is unable to stop it. Therefore the propagating wave runs through the earth and not along the curvature of the earth, as does the ordinary radio ground wave. A further example is coaxial cable transmission line in which the electric field lines have the same orientation as a magnetic longitudinal wave. As a practical consequence a warning is made in regards to un-terminated or open coaxial ends and wave guides, etc. with regard to uncontrolled emitted longitudinal waves. [Konstantin Meyl, et al.]
1) The longitudinal electric energy wave used by Tesla may consist of stable rotating ring-like structures, described using radially aligned H-field pointers, that oscillate along with an oscillating axial E-field component.
2) The pointer of the axial E-field component is in the direction of wave propagation.
3) The electric and magnetic field components remain out of phase all the way from the transmitter to the receiver.
4) The propagation velocity of the longitudinal electromagnetic energy wave is not constant as the speed of light but can assume arbitrary values between zero and
'Question: How could one distinguish longitudinal waves from transverse waves, that is to say, how could one distinguish the Tesla wave from the Hertz wave?'
For all kinds of waves there exist at least one vortex variant. The variant for radio waves, for instance, is thermal RF noise, which, according to longitudinal electromagnetic wave theory, propagates with the velocity that is greater or less than C. The velocity is the product of frequency and wavelength:
If one wishes to determine whether a wave is transverse or longitudinal then of the three variables v, f, and λ (lambda) at least two of them have to be measured.
For any specific wavelength the frequency is proportional to the velocity of propagation.
There are three systems to be brought under consideration here, each one being set distinctly apart from the others by the design of its launching structure. For the purposes of this discussion the three types of wireless transmitter are defined as,
1) The radio wave or Hertz wave transmitter that uses a dipole antenna radiator in free space to launch radio space waves; the dipole radiator is vertically polarized and separated from the earth's surface by at least one wavelength. This is considered to be and constitutes the ideal radio transmitter and forms the theoretical basis upon which all future considerations are build. The term "dipole antenna" refers to an electrical dipole and not a physical dipole. This definition is a priori, like saying that all triangles have three sides. The analysis of radio wave propagation from this transmitter takes into account the effects of the electrical current induced in the ground due to the capacitive coupling of the lower 1/4-wavelength element to the earth's surface. This is the same as the capacitive coupling between the radials and the earth's surface of a 1/4-wavelength or 5/8-wavelength ground-plane monopole antenna. The ideal radio transmitter has no ground connection. For the purposes of mathematical modeling, the ideal radio wave transmitter is defined as a radio transmitter that uses an ungrounded dipole antenna to launch radio space waves.
2) The Marconi transmitter that uses a Marconi antenna as its launching structure. This type of antenna has attributes in common with both the perfect radio transmitter antenna and the perfect Tesla transmitter launching structure in that it is intended for the launching of radio space waves, as is the dipole antenna, while at the same time it is physically connected to the earth as is the Tesla transmitter launching structure. Because of this hybrid configuration, Marconi-type grounded antennas launch both the well known radio space wave and also the less well known earth-current coupled surface wave and longitudinal electric wave characteristic of the Tesla transmitter. The relative proportion of these two components is determined by the amount of coupling between the ground plane and the earth and possibly, to a small degree, the presence or absence of a Tesla wave receiving apparatus.
3) The Tesla transmitter that uses a well-grounded, top loaded slow-wave helical resonator to launch an earth-current coupled surface wave and longitudinal electric wave. This is the Tesla wave transmitter. The intensity of the earth current and the related Tesla wave is largely dependent upon the presence or absence of a Tesla wave receiving apparatus. Power level and frequency of operation are also significant factors. When tuned to a harmonic of the fundamental earth resonance frequency of approximately 12 Hz in the region below 30 kHz and at a sufficient power level to overcome global terrestrial transmission line losses (even in the complete absence of a Tesla wave receiving apparatus) the transmitted energy propagates all the way to a point on the earth's surface lying directly opposite the Tesla wave transmitter, that is to say the earth's antipode.
Based upon the
principle of reciprocity, a radio wave that is launched by an ungrounded
dipole transmitting antenna is best received by an identical ungrounded
dipole receiving antenna. In a like manner, a Tesla wave that is
launched by a well grounded Tesla transmitter is best received by a
matched, well grounded Tesla wave receiving apparatus. If an unknown
transmitter is placed into operation on a known frequency, it may be possible
that the transmitter type, either Hertz or Tesla, and the type of wave can
be determined by the relative efficacy of the two different types of
receiver in detecting the transmitted energy.
> Sounds . . . dangerous to me. . . . Matt D.
In regards to Matt's concerns about environmental compatibility factors, they are well founded, although probably not for those reasons that he suggested. Some claims to an up-to-date environmental policy in view of the possible existence of longitudinal electromagnetic energy waves are,
1. Instruments must be developed and built with which the energy waves can be measured;
2. All existing technical apparatus should be tested regarding the emission of energy waves.
3. Only such radio transmitters with antennas that emit a minimum of energy waves should be brought into service.
4. The ability of biological systems to absorb electromagnetic energy waves must be determined. To that also belongs the question, how many vortices collect locally and how fast they fall apart.
5. Limits for the allowed pressure developed by artificially produced energy waves should be fixed, regulations and laws enacted.
6. The energy waves available in nature should be brought to a technical use, with the goal of a natural energy production.
This text was last revised on 01/31/2013
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